Operation characteristics and common accidents of

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Operation characteristics of oil and gas transmission pipeline and common accidents

1. Operation characteristics of oil and gas transmission pipeline

long distance oil (gas) pipeline is a complex engineering system, and its safe operation is related to the development of national economy and the life of urban residents. In addition to the characteristics of large pipe diameter, long transmission distance, high working pressure, large oil (gas) volume and long-term continuous operation, long-distance oil (gas) pipelines also have the following characteristics:

except that a few long-distance oil (gas) pipelines cross rivers, railways and highways, because graphene is a new material, most of the pipeline sections are laid underground. The advantages of buried pipeline laying are that it is less limited by terrain and ground features, the pipeline is not easy to be damaged by external mechanical action, and the soil can play a better role in thermal insulation of the heating and transmission pipeline, so that the pipeline is basically not affected by bad weather. The lack of which provides some stability points of this section is that once the pipeline has a leakage accident, it is not easy to be found

there is only one inter station pipeline of long-distance oil (gas) pipeline, and there is no standby pipeline. If the transportation is interrupted due to an accident, the whole line must be shut down. If the crude oil pipeline with heating transmission is shut down for a long time, it may also cause major condensation accidents

long distance oil (gas) pipelines are mostly in the field. When dealing with accidents on the line, most of them are carried out in the field far away from the base. The construction conditions of the emergency repair operation are poor, the workload is heavy, the mechanization level is high, and the transportation is inconvenient, so the pipeline accident emergency repair operation is very difficult

the transmission distance of long-distance oil (gas) pipelines is long, and the lines may pass through different topographies and geological structures. The topographical conditions such as stratigraphic fault zones, high mountains and steep slopes, marsh saline alkali lands, deserts, rivers and so on are very complex. The complexity of the terrain makes it inevitable that there will be many natural and man-made unsafe factors in the pipeline, which also brings great difficulties to the safety management and accident handling of the pipeline

2. Common accidents of oil and gas pipelines

the main accidents common in pipeline production can be divided into five categories according to their characteristics: oil and gas leakage accidents, condensing pipe accidents, fire and explosion accidents, electrical accidents, and equipment accidents

in the production of oil (gas) transportation, the accident that oil or natural gas leaks out from pipelines or equipment, causing environmental pollution and economic losses is called oil and gas leakage accident. Prone parts and causes: corrosion perforation of pipeline trunk line, pipeline weld fracture, valve oil leakage (frost crack or valve misoperation), oil tank overflow, equipment (pipeline) seal damage, pipeline fracture (natural disasters or material problems), pipeline man-made damage, etc

in oil transportation production, the crude oil viscosity increases and loses fluidity due to various reasons, and the accident of being forced to stop production and operation is called condensate pipe accident. The pipeline condensation accident mainly occurs in the following aspects: the oil source is insufficient at the initial stage of production, and there is no reverse transmission process; Operate the pipeline to deal with other accidents or adopt intermittent oil transportation process to make the shutdown time exceed the allowable shutdown time; The pipeline throughput is lower than the allowable minimum throughput, the transmission temperature is low, the heat treatment or pour point depressant test technology is immature, or the alternate method with the heating transmission process is improper; Wax blockage occurs in the pigging of waxy crude oil pipelines that have not been pigged for a long time

when petroleum vapor and natural gas are mixed with air to a certain concentration, fire or explosion will occur in case of open fire, and boiling overflow and splashing will occur in case of crude oil tank fire. Fire in oil and gas pipelines can cause serious damage to production facilities and endanger personal safety. The accident places prone to fire include: oil transportation equipment and workshop (heating furnace, oil pump room), electrical facilities, tank farm storage tanks, steel strand testing machine. During the test process, if there is a sudden power failure, what should be done: natural gas pigging station, etc

electrical accidents refer to equipment damage and personal injury accidents of oil transportation electrical system. Common electrical accidents often occur in the overhaul and maintenance of substation equipment. Prone accidents include: Motor Bush burning, oil switch oil failure, closing explosion, substation load closing, maintenance electric shock death, etc

equipment accident refers to the damage of main oil (gas) transportation equipment caused by various reasons during oil (gas) transportation production. Accidents that are easy to damage equipment include: Boiler drying up, heating furnace explosion, oil tank shrinkage, valve pressure holding or freezing crack, oil pump (gas turbine) failure, equipment overload operation, etc

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